Cognitive development

Table of Contents

Piaget was born in Switzerland in the late 1800s and was a precious student publishing her first scientific paper when she was 11 years old.

Theory suggests that children

Move through four different development stages these stages are:

Stages from birth to 2 years

Children know the world through their movements and senses

Children learn through basic actions such as looking and listening Children learn things come and go even when out of sight

Children are separate from the people and objects around them

Children realize that their actions and what they do can cause things to happen around themStages from 2 to 7 years Children are starting to learn and think and also use word which resents to objects Children don’t see eye to eye with others Children are beginning to pretend play but struggling to point out the view of other children.Stages 7 to 11 years At this age children are beginning to think logically about different events.They are beginning to know the concept of big, little, long, short, day and night etc.Stage 12 and above At this age children can tell you about their problems Being able to talk about what they have done wrong More thought are made This links to practice because Paget’s work in the early years setting and at school is to try and get children to have a more hands on approach when it comes to learning. In my practice we do this by letting the children get what toys or activities they want out, making sure that activities are child lead and nit always adult lead, By doing this it helps us have a more of an idea in which area of development children are in and can observe them.Lev Vygotsky Lev was born 1896-1934His theory was the zone of proximal development which means it is an idea to get children’s development defined in both what children can do on their own and with an adult.

He also, an interactionist and explanation for language, he thought that language came from interacting with people.Children reflect their experiences of language on their own personal experiences with their thoughts. He also believed that talking aloud and to themselves is what children do inner speech which is silent.Inner speech is (the silent and inside yourself)Social communication is where you use speech and use language.This links to practise because Vygotsky has suggested that child should be challenged and work more independently. In my setting we allow children to play independently if they want too, we do this to help children’s speech. We work alongside children because this helps children develop at their best. Let children take their own experiences and we let them ask for help if they need it. By letting children work on their own it can help them use inner speech which this could make them speak out loud.

Humanist Development

Abraham Maslow 1908-1970Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a hierarchical pyramid with five levels on it. The four levels are known as the lower order needs and is the physiological needs but the top level is considered growth needs.

These levels are:

Self-actualization which included confidence, self-esteem, achievement and respect

Belongingness and this includes love, friendship and familySafety this included security of their environment, resources health and their property

Physiologic which means air, food ,water, sex and sleepThis links to practice because we can include Maslow’s pyramid to make sure that children have a high self-esteem, have nice friendships are getting the love they need. Also, making sure that children are fed and have water, make sure that children have a nice environment and make sure that the children have good security and well looked after when they are in your care. So we include this is practise making sure that children’s well-being is safe in the setting. Also, making sure that all needs are met, so they can build a healthy relationship. Carl Rogers 1902-1987Carl was a humanistic psychologist who worked with Abraham Maslow, but he added that for a person to grow they need an environment that provides them with self-disclosure and acceptance and empathy.

Roger has 5 characteristics for a fully functional person these are:

Open experience: this means both negative and positive emotions. Negative feelings are not denied, but can work through them.Existential living: this is where you look for the future, meaning that don’t look what has happened in the past and live for the moment.Trust feeling: this is feeling and gut reactions are paid attention and they are trusted, people who make their own decisions are the right ones and we should always trust ourselves.Creativity: this means you use creative thinking and take risks, not all people play safe all the time. This means children need to seek out new experiences.Fulfilled life: this means a person is happy with life and is always looking for new challenges and experiences for them to achieve.This links to practice because when we work with children we need to make sure that children are living for the moment not bringing what has happened in the past up and keeping it at the future. In an early years setting we need to make sure that all children’s feelings are noticed, making sure that they take risks to help them learn and making sure they are happy with in the setting is the most important thing

.Social Learning

Albert Bandura (1925) found out that children copy people in their lives especially them who have a strong personality. This shows that parent behaviour can have a massive impact on how their child’s behaviour can be some of these are:If children are smacked by adults, they are likely to hit other children.If children are shouted at by parents, they are likely to shout at others.If children are given explanations, they are likely to explain things too.People who work with children have a big part in the child’s social learning.Bandura did a bobo dolly study getting children to watch 3 tapes one was the adult was rewarded for hitting the doll. Second one was the adult was punished for hitting the doll. The last one was, nothing was done about the adult hitting the doll.The children was given a doll, most of them ended up hitting the doll and this is because they see on the video they got reward for it. This links to practice because when in an early years setting we have a positive and happy impact on children and it’s very important that you do. Because when they see you positive and happy they will react the same. Also we reward children when they do something positive so they know that that is the right thing to do. By doing this it encourages the children to have more positive behaviour with in the setting.


John Dewey 1859-1952Dewey said when children learn their best when they ate interacted with their environments and was involved with school activities. He said rather than a child being a recipient of knowledge they was better when they took an active part in the process of their own learning he also placed greater emphasis on the social context of learning. Dewey argued that for education to be at its best children should be given a learning opportunity that helps them link present content to previous experiences and knowledge.This links to practice because Dewey says children learn better when they are given opportunities, in an early years setting we do this. By letting child learn in their own way with is beneficial for them, they will develop in their own time by doing this and nobody is pushing them to do things they don’t want to do.Jerome Bruner (1915-2006)Bruner’s theory is on constructive the idea of this learning is to active process where those learning are able to have a new idea based on what they already know and what has happened in the past. This theory can offer the learner ability to organize experiences and get a meaning for them. There is four principals for this theory which are:Predilection toward learningHow grouping knowledge is able to be understood by the learner

Effective manners for the teacher to present from what the learner has said Give rewards out as well as punishments .This links to practice because Bruner says that it is important for children to get rewards by how much progress they have made and not just to punish them when they do something wrong. In an early years setting they have to praise children, by rewarding children it want to make them proceed to get progress. Because every time they progress more they will remember they get a reward.BehaviouristThere are two types of well documented conditioning; classical conditioning and operant conditioning.Ivan palov 1849-1936Classical conditioning is where Ivan worked with dogs and notices that the dogs he was studding would always start to salivate before food was given them. At the end he came to the conclusion that the dogs have associated bringing out the food with other things such as, sound of footsteps, and when they see the buckets. This means that because of this they would salivate.

To show this clearly, Pavlov came up with an experiment where he fed the dog while he was ringing a bell. By doing this the dogs will associate the bell with food and when they heard the bell they would salivate even when food wasn’t given to them.John B. Watson (1878 – 1958) John took over Pavlov’s work and he discovered that children and also adults can be classically conditioned. In his experiment know as little Albert experiment. A conditioned a small child fear as a white rat they put the whit rat with a loud and frightening noise. With the noise it can make people scared of white fluffy things. This shows that the experiments are often criticized especially because the children’s fear was never deconditioned.left996950Links to practice by observing the actions of others around them, children and young people will learn a lot of social behaviors. Therefore, most early years settings will encourage staff to become role models to the children in their care, by peaking to them courteously and showing them good and healthy behaviors. This also links to practice because we try to get children get over their fears and support them.

Task BAttachment theory is mostly focused on children’s relationship and the bonds they have with people, mostly parents or careers. John Bowlby was and the first attachment theorist and he describes attachment as lasting psychology connectedness between human beings.-804036146050003426488-27282000Secure Attachment:Empathy 363982012763500Positive sense of emotion and well being Positive self esteem Positive behavior By having a secure attachment with your child, it will help their development, with building heathy friendships, be confident and help them have a health relationship with the staff and school and nursery.Importance of teachers:Teaching Infants and toddlers have an amazing opportunity to build a healthy attachment with each child in their careUnderstand unique of each child Make sure you always respond Encourage laughter while playing It’s important that teachers have a healthy relationship with children, this is because it will help them, observe them in what their development needs are, encourage them with speech and help them understand the child as an individual.

By this happening it will make parent feel happy about leaving their child, because they have a healthy attachment at nursery. How to support parent’s child attachmentHelp parents to understand and recognize and feel that they are the most important people to a baby.Show how parents can connect with the baby through humor.488682038268200Encourage parents to read and understand signals the baby sends, making sure they respond appropriatelyAttachment play.Interaction, strengths and connectionsOften involves laughterDoesn’t require special equipment Can take place anywhere at any timeIncludes many familiar activities. General guidelines.Follow child’s lead Do not teach or correctIf your child is laughing you’re on the right track Avoid tickling Don’t try attachment play if child is crying Put phone away and have family time.It’s important to follow guidelines to help you have a healthy attachment with your child. Making sure that you child is having lots of fun, happy and is in a loving home. It’s important for children to have a healthy attachment because it can have a few impacts on them later on in life.

Task Bi Section one It is important to have a positive attachments for children holistic development because this means when a child has a good relationship with parents from being a baby they will feel secure. This also, means that when they get older it will get easier for them to get attached to teachers and even friends.Practitioners have an important role in supporting positive attachment, this is because when parents have to leave their children at school or nursery it will give them relief when they are happy and see that they have a good attachment with their key worker or any members of staff.Children who don’t develop a heathy attachment can have problems later on in life, such as growing up and not being able to have friends, because they have never had that attachment to know how to make them. Also, this can have an effect when growing up because they not be able to open up to anyone, make them feel like they have no one and they are all alone.Consequences of children not having a positive relationship

Bad behavior

Low self-esteem

Not many friends


Unhappy a lot of the time


Not attached to any members off staff

Find it harder in day to day life

Get bullied later on in life

Always feel alone

No one to talk to

No friends

Bii section two

Different play theories

Psychoanalytic theory: Children’s Play is to help children put their negative thoughts and turn them into positive ones.Arousal modulation theory: Children play to regulate the level of arousal in their central nervous system. Metacommunicative theory: Children play to learn and to make believe and pretend on objects and learn to do actions. .Cognitive theories Jean Piaget and lev s Vygotsky. They believed that current mental abilities help solve problems because they van pretend that the world is in a different way and they also believed that play develops and encourages abstract thoughts.It’s Important for children to learn during play because while children are playing it helps their development. Such as, socially and emotionally and even physically. While they are playing it can help adults engage with them and see what they are doing. Mostly children play and learn but some children find it difficult and could need more help from adults.It’s important that practitioners support children to learn while they play. Play is a very important part of a child’s development, physical play, and happiness, cognitive and also helps with their social development. It’s also important that practitioner have a positive attitude towards the children while they are playing this is because when they are in your care they look up as you as a role model. Make sure that you don’t rush the child if they are playing let them do it in their own time, this is so they can learn and watch others. When children are playing its good for practitioners to observe them, to see what they can do and see what they are learning by doing this it helps practitioners see what they are below in and what they can do.

Requirements of play within legislation

The human right act 1998 this is directly linked to the European convention and human rights. The key provision of the act is it is unlawful for public authority to act in a way which is incompatible with a convention right. This is a law in the Uk allowing violation of convention to be dealt with in the Uk.United Nations convention of rights of a child 1989The United Nations conventions of rights is one of the most known international human right acts. As an early year practitioner you need to understand and know the basic requirements of the national convention.Section threeDefinition of pedagogical theories: Pedagogy relates to the “how”, or practice of educating. It refers to, “that set of instructional techniques and strategies which enable learning to take place and provide opportunities for the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes and dispositions within a particular social and material context. It refers to the interactive process between teacher and learner and to the learning environment” (Siraj-Blatchford et al. 2002). It concerns the “how” of adult and child interaction, whilst recognizing that how children learn and develop at this stage is not just subject to what is intended to be taught, but it is also of particular importance how it is facilitated.Pedagogical theories link to practice in early years because we have to interact with children on a daily basis, we have to make sure all children are learning and are at their developing stage. We need to make sure that children have a balance of child lead play, focused and also structured by learning to ensure that they enjoy to read, write, use numbers explore in their own would and make creations. Children learn and develop physically, cognitively and emotionally at a faster rate than at any other age and this is in the thirst 3 years. All professionals have support children when they are learning to walk, run, speak and communicate, relate others to play and explore their world.