INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC BARRIES TO LEARNINGThe principal dares going through in South African school systems is that of realizing the constitutional cost of quality, free from unfairness and properness of primary training for all, such as the ones who experience boundaries to learning. Under apartheid, freshmen had been separated no longer only trained separately however also according to their races, but a separate schooling machine served those with impairments or disabilities. Barriers to mastering acknowledges that reasons instructional difficulties might also be intrinsic and extrinsic to learning. Barriers to mastering are the preferred South African time period to explain why some newbies do not ride learning success. The term is preferred to exclusive wishes which signifies a scientific or deficit strategy to instructional difficulties and find out the hassle within the learner, rather than in the gadget (Howell, 2007:98).Intrinsic barriers encompass physical prerequisites that intervene with a learner’s potential to get admission to the school surroundings and the curriculum (Walton et al., 2009).Extrinsic barriers are the factors that comes from outside the rookies or backyard the body, however influence on his or her learning. They can also come from the family and it cultural, social and financial conditions and may also include lack of parental environment from faculties and family troubles like violence, death, and divorce of dad and mom (Walton et al., 2009). Neurological conditions are disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system. In other words, the brain, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, spinal cord, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscles. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system e.g. brain tumors. The sensory impairment is when one of your senses is no longer normal, it can be a sense of light, smell, hearing, touch, taste and spatial awareness. For example, if you wear grasses you have a sight weakness, if you find it hard to hear then you have a hearing impairment. There is also a dual sensory impairment which is a combination of two impairments which are hearing and sight.Poverty is a condition or state at which a person or people lacks the financial resources and needs for a minimum standard of living. In other words, poverty means that the income measure from employment is low than basic human needs cannot be met, people and families might live without proper housing, healthy food, clean water, and medical attention.The curriculum itself creates barriers by being flexible in the style and speed in which teaching, and learning takes place, the way in which the classroom is organized and managed as well as the availability of materials and apparatus as it prevents the needs of the diverse learners from being met. The way in which assessments are being designed can create a barrier between the learners who can remember a certain amount of information and the learners who understand the content.Neurological conditions Intrinsic barriers which are orders of the brain, spinal cord and nerves throughout the body. it is important for school squad to an individual occupation action plan, this group should have teachers, school nurses, physicians and the community member including the parents who can help when it comes to the health of the learners (Nabors, Little, Akin-Little, &Iobst, 2008). Neurological conditions affect the learner’s learning a lot, a learner with this condition often experience fatigue and this extreme tiredness make it hard for the learner to concentrate and engage with others in the classroom environment. The fatigue caused by these conditions make it hard for the learners to concentrate and may end up sleeping during the lesson and this may lead to the learner failing that subject. These effects make it hard for teachers to present the lessons, a teacher may not present a lesson while there is a sleeping or an unconscious learner. One of the major effects of these conditions is when the learner have difficulties with concentration and completion of tasks or assignments, if a learner cannot concentrate in the classroom, it is hard for the teachers also to present the lesson and in that way the teaching and learning cannot take place properly. Failure to complete the tasks or assignment makes it hard for the teacher to see how far they have gone and to identify the difficulties in the curriculum. The neurological conditions are sometimes painful, this makes it hard for the learner to engage in the lesson because of the pain he/she may be going through, pain can be direct or indirect consequences of a neurological disorders. These conditions leave learners vulnerable to a wide spread of viruses and inflections, and frequent absenteeism due to the hospitalization of the learner and the change in medication. The medication may lead to lethargy and difficulty with concentration in the classroom and the learner cannot acquire any information, this means that the learner cannot participate in the class and this can be caused by the lowering of the energy level of the learner. These conditions can be more susceptible to stress the presence of stress makes it difficult for learner to produce positive results. Learners with neurological conditions must be considered when teachers set assessments, because they have memory difficulties (Wodrich et al.,2006). This may lead to the illness which could be exacerbated by times of stress and is a major barrier to learner. Some learners may have postural difficulties and mobility with walking, climbing, stairs, or remaining in one positive for long periods of time, this may also lead to the difficulties on the learners to reach the classroom e.g. failure to climb stairs may also lead to the failure to finish the difficult to reach the classroom. Writing and other fine motor activities may also be affected, and this may lead to failure to finish the tasks and assignment e.g. difficulties in the computer use. There conditions may result in the learner having difficulties with oral communication.PovertyIs the extrinsic barrier to learning which is linked to the lack of ingress to basic services is the effect which sustained poverty has on the learning process and education system. The cause of poverty for learners is mainly unemployment and other economic inequalities that is faced with the families of the learners. When families are at poverty, they lack to meet basic needs such as shelter and healthy food. Such conditions cause emotional stress to the learners which badly affects learning and development. The lack of nourishment also leads to the learner lacking concentration in the classroom and this affects the ability of the learner to engage effectively in the learning process and this may lead to failure. Poor families cannot afford proper nutrition and sometimes do not have enough food at home, this affects the mind of the learner and he/she might end up not concentrating in the classroom. Poor families send their children to school without having a meal, not eating enough reduces the brain’s capacity to thing and this makes it hard to learn, and poor learners are at disadvantage when it comes to learning and they may end up falling behind their classmates. Learners who come from poverty-stricken families tend to have lower levels of reasoning and verbal skills than their peers who come from financially stable families, this is because the poor parents are less likely to tend to read. There are long learning hours in schools which makes it difficult for poor learners to cope with their school work because they get tired and end up being sleepy during the lessons. There are lower levels of education in the poverty-stricken communities and fewer resources, poor parents are unable to give their children the attention and help academically and thus children learn a limited vocabulary. Learners who come from poor families are most likely to leave school as soon as possible to go out to work in order to supplement the family income. Those learners have limited skills with fewer working opportunities, this decreases likelihood of employment or poorly paid work. Poverty may lead to stress, and children’s brains develop best when they have lower exposure to stress but being in a financially disadvantaged home causes stress and this negatively affect the learner’s mind and this may affect the brain development, which may cause an inability to pay attention and can affect development of proper memory function.Inflexible curriculumIs one of the major barriers to learning and progress can be found in the curriculum itself and this relate essentially to the inflexible creation of the curriculum which avert it from meeting diverse needs among learners. When learners cannot access the curriculum, learning breakdown takes place. Thee style and pace of teaching and learning are the key components of the curriculum, what is being taught, classroom management and organization, as well as the material and equipment which are used in the process of teaching and learning. Often educators use teaching styles which does not accommodate all the learners’ needs through inadequate training. Sometimes educators teach at a pace which only favors fast learners and by that the slow learners ends up not understanding what is being taught. The pace and teaching strategy limit the involvement of the learners with high level of potential. The subjects which learners choose from when reaching the Future Education and Training (FET) level may limit the learners’ knowledge based or fail to develop the well educated and emotional capacities of the learners. Such barriers results when learners are not given attention by the teachers to balancing skills which prepare learners for the working environment and skills which develop the learners to subsist with life. Some learners are excluded from some aspects of the curriculum as a result of prejudice and ignorance. For example, learners who are physically disabled are often prevented from participating in sports. Sometimes what is learned through the curriculum is not appropriate to learners’ lives states making the teaching and learning extremely difficult and contributing to the breakdown of learning.
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